His forces, almost all Highlanders, defeated William's forces at the Battle of Killiecrankie in , but they took heavy losses and Dundee was slain in the fighting. Without his leadership the Jacobite army was soon defeated at the Battle of Dunkeld. The closing decade of the 17th century saw the generally favourable economic conditions that had dominated since the Restoration come to an end.
There was a slump in trade with the Baltic and France from to , caused by French protectionism and changes in the Scottish cattle trade, followed by four years of failed harvests , and , an era known as the "seven ill years". The "Company of Scotland Trading to Africa and the Indies" received a charter to raise capital through public subscription. With the dream of building a lucrative overseas colony for Scotland, the Company of Scotland invested in the Darien scheme , an ambitious plan devised by William Paterson to establish a colony on the Isthmus of Panama in the hope of establishing trade with the Far East.
Since the capital resources of the Edinburgh merchants and landholder elite were insufficient, the company appealed to middling social ranks, who responded with patriotic fervour to the call for money; the lower classes volunteered as colonists. The English investors withdrew. Returning to Edinburgh, the Company raised , pounds in a few weeks.
Three small fleets with a total of 3, men eventually set out for Panama in The exercise proved a disaster. Poorly equipped; beset by incessant rain; under attack by the Spanish from nearby Cartagena ; and refused aid by the English in the West Indies , the colonists abandoned their project in Only 1, survived and only one ship managed to return to Scotland. Scotland was a poor rural, agricultural society with a population of 1. Although Scotland lost home rule, the Union allowed it to break free of a stultifying system and opened the way for the Scottish enlightenment as well as a great expansion of trade and increase in opportunity and wealth.
Edinburgh economist Adam Smith concluded in that "By the union with England, the middling and inferior ranks of people in Scotland gained a complete deliverance from the power of an aristocracy which had always before oppressed them. Scotland's transformation into a rich leader of modern industry came suddenly and unexpectedly in the next years, following its union with England in and its integration with the advanced English and imperial economies. Glasgow , on the river Clyde, was the base for the tobacco and sugar trade with an emerging textile industry.
Edinburgh was the administrative and intellectual centre where the Scottish Enlightenment was chiefly based. By the start of the 18th century, a political union between Scotland and England became politically and economically attractive, promising to open up the much larger markets of England, as well as those of the growing English Empire. With economic stagnation since the late 17th century, which was particularly acute in , the country depended more and more heavily on sales of cattle and linen to England, who used this to create pressure for a union. It was also a full economic union; indeed, most of its 25 articles dealt with economic arrangements for the new state known as "Great Britain".
It added 45 Scots to the members of the House of Commons and 16 Scots to the members of the House of Lords, and ended the Scottish parliament. It also replaced the Scottish systems of currency, taxation and laws regulating trade with laws made in London. Scottish law remained separate from English law, and the religious system was not changed. England had about five times the population of Scotland at the time, and about 36 times as much wealth. Jacobitism was revived by the unpopularity of the union. However, government arrests forestalled the southern ventures.
In Scotland, John Erskine, Earl of Mar , nicknamed Bobbin' John , raised the Jacobite clans but proved to be an indecisive leader and an incompetent soldier. Mar captured Perth, but let a smaller government force under the Duke of Argyll hold the Stirling plain. Part of Mar's army joined up with risings in northern England and southern Scotland, and the Jacobites fought their way into England before being defeated at the Battle of Preston , surrendering on 14 November The day before, Mar had failed to defeat Argyll at the Battle of Sheriffmuir.
At this point, James belatedly landed in Scotland, but was advised that the cause was hopeless.
He fled back to France. An attempted Jacobite invasion with Spanish assistance in met with little support from the clans and ended in defeat at the Battle of Glen Shiel. In , the Jacobite rising known as The 'Forty-Five began. At the outset he was successful, taking Edinburgh  and then defeating the only government army in Scotland at the Battle of Prestonpans.
However, it became increasingly evident that England would not support a Roman Catholic Stuart monarch. The Jacobite leadership had a crisis of confidence and they retreated to Scotland as two English armies closed in and Hanoverian troops began to return from the continent. After an unsuccessful attempt on Stirling, he retreated north towards Inverness. He was pursued by the Duke of Cumberland and gave battle with an exhausted army at Culloden on 16 April , where the Jacobite cause was crushed.
The Old Pretender died in and the Young Pretender, without legitimate issue, in When his brother, Henry, Cardinal of York , died in , the Jacobite cause was at an end. With the advent of the Union and the demise of Jacobitism, access to London and the Empire opened up very attractive career opportunities for ambitious middle-class and upper-class Scots, who seized the chance to become entrepreneurs, intellectuals, and soldiers.
Historian Neil Davidson notes that "after there was an entirely new level of participation by Scots in political life, particularly outside Scotland". As the Secretary of War told Parliament in , "I am for having always in our army as many Scottish soldiers as possible In his great Dictionary Johnson defined oats as, "a grain, which in England is generally given to horses, but in Scotland supports the people.
Scottish politics in the late 18th century was dominated by the Whigs , with the benign management of Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll — , who was in effect the "viceroy of Scotland" from the s until his death in Scotland generally supported the king with enthusiasm during the American Revolution. Henry Dundas — dominated political affairs in the latter part of the century. Dundas put a brake on intellectual and social change through his ruthless manipulation of patronage in alliance with Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger , until he lost power in The main unit of local government was the parish, and since it was also part of the church, the elders imposed public humiliation for what the locals considered immoral behaviour, including fornication, drunkenness, wife beating, cursing and Sabbath breaking.
The main focus was on the poor and the landlords "lairds" and gentry, and their servants, were not subject to the parish's control. The policing system weakened after and disappeared in most places by the s. The clan system of the Highlands and Islands had been seen as a challenge to the rulers of Scotland from before the 17th century.
James VI's various measures to exert control included the Statutes of Iona , an attempt to force clan leaders to become integrated into the rest of Scottish society. This started a slow process of change which, by the second half of the 18th century, saw clan chiefs start to think of themselves as commercial landlords, rather than as patriarchs of their people. To their tenants, initially this meant that monetary rents replaced those paid in kind. Later, rent increases became common.
The shift of this attitude slowly spread through the Highland elite but not among their tenants. It became easier to borrow against the security of a Highland estate from the s onwards. As the lenders became predominantly people and organisations outside the Highlands, there was a greater willingness to foreclose if the borrower defaulted. Combined with an astounding level of financial incompetence among the Highland elite, this ultimately forced the sale of the estates of many Highland landed families over the period — The greatest number of sales of whole estates was toward the end of this period.
The Jacobite rebellion of gave a final period of importance to the ability of Highland clans to raise bodies of fighting men at short notice. With the defeat at Culloden, any enthusiasm for continued warfare disappeared and clan leaders returned to their transition to being commercial landlords.
The Scottish Nation or the Surnames of Scotland
This was arguably accelerated by some of the punitive laws enacted after the rebellion. Devine warns against seeing a clear cause and effect relationship between the post-Culloden legislation and the collapse of clanship. He questions the basic effectiveness of the measures, quoting W. Speck who ascribes the pacification of the area more to "a disinclination to rebel than to the government's repressive measures. The vast majority of these were sold by auction to pay creditors. The changes by the Dukes of Argyll in the s displaced many of the tacksmen in the area.
From the s onwards, this became a matter of policy throughout the Highlands. The restriction on subletting by tacksmen meant that landlords received all the rent paid by the actual farming tenants — thereby increasing their income. By the early part of the 19th century, the tacksman had become a rare component of Highland society. Devine describes "the displacement of this class as one of the clearest demonstrations of the death of the old Gaelic society.
These tenants were from the better off part of Highland peasant society, and, together with the tacksmen, they took their capital and entrepreneurial energy to the New World, unwilling to participate in economic changes imposed by their landlords which often involved a loss of status for the tenant. Agricultural improvement was introduced across the Highlands over the relatively short period of The evictions involved in this became known as the Highland clearances.
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There was regional variation. In the east and south of the Highlands, the old townships or bailtean , which were farmed under the run rig system were replaced by larger enclosed farms, with fewer people holding leases and proportionately more of the population working as employees on these larger farms. This was broadly similar to the situation in the Lowlands. In the north and west, including the Hebrides, as land was taken out of run rig, Crofting communities were established.
Much of this change involved establishing large pastoral sheep farms, with the old displaced tenants moving to new crofts in coastal areas or on poor quality land. Sheep farming was increasingly profitable at the end of the 18th century, so could pay substantially higher rents than the previous tenants. Particularly in the Hebrides, some crofting communities were established to work in the kelp industry.
Others were engaged in fishing. Croft sizes were kept small, so that the occupiers were forced to seek employment to supplement what they could grow. The resulting connection with the Lowlands was highly influential on all aspects of Highland life, touching on income levels, social attitudes and language. Migrant working gave an advantage in speaking English, which came to be considered "the language of work". In the Highland potato famine struck the crofting communities of the North and West Highlands. By the charitable relief effort was wound up, despite the continuing crop failure, and landlords, charities and the government resorted to encouraging emigration.
The overall result was that almost 11, people were provided with "assisted passages" by their landlords between and , with the greatest number travelling in To this should be added an unknown, but significant number, who paid their own fares to emigrate, and a further unknown number assisted by the Colonial Land and Emigration commission. Many of those who remained became even more involved in temporary migration for work in the Lowlands, both out of necessity during the famine and having become accustomed to working away by the time the famine ceased.
Much longer periods were spent out of the Highlands — often for much of the year or more. The clearances were followed by a period of even greater emigration from the Highlands, which continued with a brief lull for the First World War up to the start of the Great Depression. Historian Jonathan Israel argues that by Scotland's major cities had created an intellectual infrastructure of mutually supporting institutions, such as universities, reading societies, libraries, periodicals, museums and masonic lodges.
The Scottish network was "predominantly liberal Calvinist, Newtonian, and 'design' oriented in character which played a major role in the further development of the transatlantic Enlightenment.
A moral philosopher who produced alternatives to the ideas of Thomas Hobbes , one of his major contributions to world thought was the utilitarian and consequentialist principle that virtue is that which provides, in his words, "the greatest happiness for the greatest numbers". He and other Scottish Enlightenment thinkers developed what he called a ' science of man ',  which was expressed historically in works by authors including James Burnett , Adam Ferguson , John Millar and William Robertson , all of whom merged a scientific study of how humans behave in ancient and primitive cultures with a strong awareness of the determining forces of modernity.
Modern sociology largely originated from this movement  and Hume's philosophical concepts that directly influenced James Madison and thus the US Constitution and when popularised by Dugald Stewart , would be the basis of classical liberalism.
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It had an immediate impact on British economic policy and in the 21st century still framed discussions on globalisation and tariffs. With tariffs with England now abolished, the potential for trade for Scottish merchants was considerable. However, Scotland in was still a poor rural, agricultural society with a population of 1.
However, trade with the West Indies began to make up for the loss of the tobacco business,  reflecting the British demand for sugar and the demand in the West Indies for herring and linen goods. Linen was Scotland's premier industry in the 18th century and formed the basis for the later cotton, jute,  and woollen industries. Since England had woollens, this meant linen.
Encouraged and subsidised by the Board of Trustees so it could compete with German products, merchant entrepreneurs became dominant in all stages of linen manufacturing and built up the market share of Scottish linens, especially in the American colonial market. As a joint-stock company, it had the right to raise funds through the issue of promissory notes or bonds.
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With its bonds functioning as bank notes, the company gradually moved into the business of lending and discounting to other linen manufacturers, and in the early s banking became its main activity. There were over branches, amounting to one office per 7, people, double the level in England, where banks were also more heavily regulated. Historians have emphasised that the flexibility and dynamism of the Scottish banking system contributed significantly to the rapid development of the economy in the 19th century. German sociologist Max Weber mentioned Scottish Presbyterianism in The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , and many scholars in recent decades argued that "this worldly asceticism" of Calvinism was integral to Scotland's rapid economic modernisation.
In the s the Presbyterian establishment purged the land of Episcopalians and heretics, and made blasphemy a capital crime. Thomas Aitkenhead, the son of an Edinburgh surgeon, aged 18, was indicted for blasphemy by order of the Privy Council for calling the New Testament "The History of the Imposter Christ"; he was hanged in The early 18th century saw the beginnings of a fragmentation of the Church of Scotland.
These fractures were prompted by issues of government and patronage, but reflected a wider division between the hard-line Evangelicals and the theologically more tolerant Moderate Party. The battle was over fears of fanaticism by the former and the promotion of Enlightenment ideas by the latter.
The Patronage Act of was a major blow to the evangelicals, for it meant that local landlords could choose the minister, not the members of the congregation. The second schism in lead to the foundation of the independent Relief Church. Long after the triumph of the Church of Scotland in the Lowlands, Highlanders and Islanders clung to an old-fashioned Christianity infused with animistic folk beliefs and practices. The remoteness of the region and the lack of a Gaelic-speaking clergy undermined the missionary efforts of the established church. The later 18th century saw some success, owing to the efforts of the SSPCK missionaries and to the disruption of traditional society.
Conditions also grew worse for Catholics after the Jacobite rebellions and Catholicism was reduced to little more than a poorly run mission. Also important was Episcopalianism, which had retained supporters through the civil wars and changes of regime in the 17th century. Since most Episcopalians had given their support to the Jacobite rebellions in the early 18th century, they also suffered a decline in fortunes. Although Scotland increasingly adopted the English language and wider cultural norms, its literature developed a distinct national identity and began to enjoy an international reputation.
Allan Ramsay — laid the foundations of a reawakening of interest in older Scottish literature, as well as leading the trend for pastoral poetry, helping to develop the Habbie stanza as a poetic form. Fingal written in was speedily translated into many European languages, and its deep appreciation of natural beauty and the melancholy tenderness of its treatment of the ancient legend did more than any single work to bring about the Romantic movement in European, and especially in German, literature, influencing Herder and Goethe.
Burns, an Ayrshire poet and lyricist, is widely regarded as the national poet of Scotland and a major figure in the Romantic movement. As well as making original compositions, Burns also collected folk songs from across Scotland, often revising or adapting them. His poem and song " Auld Lang Syne " is often sung at Hogmanay the last day of the year , and " Scots Wha Hae " served for a long time as an unofficial national anthem of the country. A legacy of the Reformation in Scotland was the aim of having a school in every parish, which was underlined by an act of the Scottish parliament in reinforced in In rural communities this obliged local landowners heritors to provide a schoolhouse and pay a schoolmaster, while ministers and local presbyteries oversaw the quality of the education.
The headmaster or "dominie" was often university educated and enjoyed high local prestige. A "democratic myth" emerged in the 19th century to the effect that many a "lad of pairts" had been able to rise up through the system to take high office and that literacy was much more widespread in Scotland than in neighbouring states, particularly England. Kirk schools were not free, attendance was not compulsory and they generally imparted only basic literacy such as the ability to read the Bible. Poor children, starting at age 7, were done by age 8 or 9; the majority were finished by age 11 or The result was widespread basic reading ability; since there was an extra fee for writing, half the people never learned to write.
Scots were not significantly better educated than the English and other contemporary nations. A few talented poor boys did go to university, but usually they were helped by aristocratic or gentry sponsors. Most of them became poorly paid teachers or ministers, and none became important figures in the Scottish Enlightenment or the Industrial Revolution. By the 18th century there were five universities in Scotland, at Edinburgh , Glasgow , St.
Originally oriented to clerical and legal training, after the religious and political upheavals of the 17th century they recovered with a lecture-based curriculum that was able to embrace economics and science, offering a high quality liberal education to the sons of the nobility and gentry. It helped the universities to become major centres of medical education and to put Scotland at the forefront of Enlightenment thinking. Scotland's transformation into a rich leader of modern industry came suddenly and unexpectedly. At first the leading industry, based in the west, was the spinning and weaving of cotton.
In , the American Civil War suddenly cut off the supplies of raw cotton and the industry never recovered. Thanks to its many entrepreneurs and engineers, and its large stock of easily mined coal, Scotland became a world centre for engineering, shipbuilding, and locomotive construction, with steel replacing iron after The Scottish Reform Act increased the number of Scottish MPs and significantly widened the franchise to include more of the middle classes. From this point until the end of the century, the Whigs and after their successors the Liberal Party , managed to gain a majority of the Westminster Parliamentary seats for Scotland, although these were often outnumbered by the much larger number of English and Welsh Conservatives.
From about textiles became the most important industry in the west of Scotland, especially the spinning and weaving of cotton, which flourished until in the American Civil War cut off the supplies of raw cotton. The invention of the hot blast for smelting iron revolutionised the Scottish iron industry.
As a result, Scotland became a centre for engineering, shipbuilding and the production of locomotives. Toward the end of the 19th century, steel production largely replaced iron production. By , there were 1,, coal miners in Scotland. Britain was the world leader in the construction of railways, and their use to expand trade and coal supplies.
The first successful locomotive-powered line in Scotland, between Monkland and Kirkintilloch , opened in For example, railways opened the London market to Scottish beef and milk. They enabled the Aberdeen Angus to become a cattle breed of worldwide reputation. Scotland was already one of the most urbanised societies in Europe by After , the Clydeside shipyards specialised in steamships made of iron after , made of steel , which rapidly replaced the wooden sailing vessels of both the merchant fleets and the battle fleets of the world.
It became the world's pre-eminent shipbuilding centre. Clydebuilt became an industry benchmark of quality, and the river's shipyards were given contracts for warships. The industrial developments, while they brought work and wealth, were so rapid that housing, town-planning, and provision for public health did not keep pace with them, and for a time living conditions in some of the towns and cities were notoriously bad, with overcrowding, high infant mortality, and growing rates of tuberculosis.
This paternalistic policy led many owners to endorse government sponsored housing programs as well as self-help projects among the respectable working class. While the Scottish Enlightenment is traditionally considered to have concluded toward the end of the 18th century,  disproportionately large Scottish contributions to British science and letters continued for another 50 years or more, thanks to such figures as the mathematicians and physicists James Clerk Maxwell , Lord Kelvin , and the engineers and inventors James Watt and William Murdoch , whose work was critical to the technological developments of the Industrial Revolution throughout Britain.
In literature the most successful figure of the mid-nineteenth century was Walter Scott , who began as a poet and also collected and published Scottish ballads. His first prose work, Waverley in , is often called the first historical novel. Arthur Conan Doyle 's Sherlock Holmes stories helped found the tradition of detective fiction. The " kailyard tradition " at the end of the century, brought elements of fantasy and folklore back into fashion as can be seen in the work of figures like J.
Barrie , most famous for his creation of Peter Pan , and George MacDonald , whose works, including Phantasies , played a major part in the creation of the fantasy genre. Scotland also played a major part in the development of art and architecture. The Glasgow School , which developed in the late 19th century, and flourished in the early 20th century, produced a distinctive blend of influences including the Celtic Revival the Arts and Crafts Movement , and Japonisme , which found favour throughout the modern art world of continental Europe and helped define the Art Nouveau style.
Among the most prominent members were the loose collective of The Four: acclaimed architect Charles Rennie Mackintosh , his wife the painter and glass artist Margaret MacDonald , her sister the artist Frances , and her husband, the artist and teacher Herbert MacNair. This period saw a process of rehabilitation for highland culture. Tartan had already been adopted for highland regiments in the British army, which poor highlanders joined in large numbers until the end of the Napoleonic Wars in , but by the 19th century it had largely been abandoned by the ordinary people.
In the s, as part of the Romantic revival , tartan and the kilt were adopted by members of the social elite, not just in Scotland, but across Europe,   prompted by the popularity of Macpherson's Ossian cycle   and then Walter Scott's Waverley novels. The world paid attention to their literary redefinition of Scottishness, as they forged an image largely based on characteristics in polar opposition to those associated with England and modernity.
This new identity made it possible for Scottish culture to become integrated into a wider European and North American context, not to mention tourist sites, but it also locked in a sense of "otherness" which Scotland began to shed only in the late 20th century.
The designation of individual clan tartans was largely defined in this period and became a major symbol of Scottish identity. Despite these changes the highlands remained very poor and traditional, with few connections to the uplift of the Scottish Enlightenment and little role in the Industrial Revolution. They turned to money rents, displaced farmers to raise sheep, and downplayed the traditional patriarchal relationship that had historically sustained the clans. Potato blight reached the Highlands in , where , people faced disaster because their food supply was largely potatoes with a little herring, oatmeal and milk.
They were rescued by an effective emergency relief system that stands in dramatic contrast to the failures of relief in Ireland. The unequal concentration of land ownership remained an emotional subject and eventually became a cornerstone of liberal radicalism. The politically powerless poor crofters embraced the popularly oriented, fervently evangelical Presbyterian revival after ,  and the breakaway "Free Church" after This evangelical movement was led by lay preachers who themselves came from the lower strata, and whose preaching was implicitly critical of the established order.
This energised the crofters and separated them from the landlords, preparing them for their successful and violent challenge to the landlords in the s through the Highland Land League. It was quieted when the government stepped in passing the Crofters' Holdings Scotland Act, to reduce rents, guarantee fixity of tenure, and break up large estates to provide crofts for the homeless. The Crofters as a political movement faded away by , and the Liberal Party gained most of their votes.
The population of Scotland grew steadily in the 19th century, from 1,, in the census of to 2,, in and 4,, in Scots-born emigrants that played a leading role in the foundation and development of the United States included cleric and revolutionary John Witherspoon ,  sailor John Paul Jones , industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie , and scientist and inventor Alexander Graham Bell. Macdonald and politician and social reformer Tommy Douglas.
After prolonged years of struggle, in the Evangelicals gained control of the General Assembly and passed the Veto Act, which allowed congregations to reject unwanted "intrusive" presentations to livings by patrons. The following "Ten Years' Conflict" of legal and political wrangling ended in defeat for the non-intrusionists in the civil courts.
The result was a schism from the church by some of the non-intrusionists led by Dr Thomas Chalmers known as the Great Disruption of Roughly a third of the clergy, mainly from the North and Highlands, formed the separate Free Church of Scotland. The evangelical Free Churches, which were more accepting of Gaelic language and culture, grew rapidly in the Highlands and Islands, appealing much more strongly than did the established church.
He stressed a social vision that revived and preserved Scotland's communal traditions at a time of strain on the social fabric of the country. Chalmers's idealised small equalitarian, kirk-based, self-contained communities that recognised the individuality of their members and the need for co-operation.
Chalmers's ideals demonstrated that the church was concerned with the problems of urban society, and they represented a real attempt to overcome the social fragmentation that took place in industrial towns and cities. In the late 19th century the major debates were between fundamentalist Calvinists and theological liberals, who rejected a literal interpretation of the Bible.
This resulted in a further split in the Free Church as the rigid Calvinists broke away to form the Free Presbyterian Church in The removal of legislation on lay patronage would allow the majority of the Free Church to rejoin Church of Scotland in The schisms left small denominations including the Free Presbyterians and a remnant that had not merged in as the Free Church. Catholic Emancipation in and the influx of large numbers of Irish immigrants, particularly after the famine years of the late s, principally to the growing lowland centres like Glasgow, led to a transformation in the fortunes of Catholicism.
In , despite opposition, a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical hierarchy was restored to the country, and Catholicism became a significant denomination within Scotland. From they were joined by the evangelical revivalism of the Salvation Army , which attempted to make major inroads in the growing urban centres. Industrialisation, urbanisation and the Disruption of all undermined the tradition of parish schools.
From the state began to fund buildings with grants, then from it was funding schools by direct sponsorship, and in Scotland moved to a system like that in England of state-sponsored largely free schools, run by local school boards. Larger urban school boards established "higher grade" secondary schools as a cheaper alternative to the burgh schools.
The Scottish Education Department introduced a Leaving Certificate Examination in to set national standards for secondary education and in school fees were abolished, creating a state-funded national system of free basic education and common examinations. At the beginning of the 19th century, Scottish universities had no entrance exam, students typically entered at ages of 15 or 16, attended for as little as two years, chose which lectures to attend and could leave without qualifications. After two commissions of enquiry in and and reforming acts of parliament in and , the curriculum and system of graduation were reformed to meet the needs of the emerging middle classes and the professions.
He may and must have offended against the laws of God and nature, if he was the faithful viceroy of an empire wrested in blood from the people to whom God and nature had given it. He may and must have preserved that unjust dominion over timorous and abject nations by a terrifying, overbearing Until this be done, neither religion nor philosophy can be pressed very far into the aid of reformation and punishment. You can go to cart and save for later there. Average rating: 0 out of 5 stars, based on 0 reviews Write a review. William Anderson. Tell us if something is incorrect.
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